gdc
Pancreatic Cancer

Nutrition for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

Getting proper nutrition is often difficult for patients with pancreatic cancer, but it is possible with specialized nutritional care and guidance from a registered dietitian.
Web Exclusives – November 27, 2019

For patients with pancreatic cancer, eating a well-balanced diet is important for having the best quality of life, strength, and response to treatment.1 However, getting good nutrition can be difficult, and patients with pancreatic cancer can speak with a registered dietitian to make a personalized plan for how to get proper nutrition.2

Why Does Pancreatic Cancer Cause Nutritional Problems?

By the time of diagnosis, up to 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer will have had unplanned weight loss. This weight loss happens because patients feel less hungry while their bodies are working harder and using more calories.3 Some patients may also have blockages to parts of the digestive tract or not have enough enzymes or proteins to absorb and digest the food they eat.4

Treatments for pancreatic cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, may also cause patients to lose weight without trying.1 Patients who have surgery for pancreatic cancer are especially at risk for malnutrition and weight loss, because parts of the pancreas are removed and this makes it harder to make enough enzymes to digest and absorb nutrients from food.5

What Nutritional Treatment Is Used for Pancreatic Cancer?

Patients with pancreatic cancer who have had surgery and some who have not had surgery may need to take pancreatic enzymes (liquid or pill) with their food to help digest and absorb nutrients from the food they eat.1 Patients who have diarrhea may also need to take vitamins to replace the nutrients that their bodies are having trouble absorbing.5

Patients can do a lot to help their nutrition when they have pancreatic cancer. Eating smaller meals more often (5-6 meals spaced 3 hours apart) can be very helpful for gaining weight and getting enough nutrients.1 Patients should avoid alcohol but drink plenty of other fluids between meals to keep their bodies strong.1

Patients should eat plenty of foods containing protein, complex carbohydrates, healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals.6 Healthy protein can be found in chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, low-fat yogurt, milk, cheese, dairy substitutes, peanut butter, beans, and foods with soy.1 Complex carbohydrates and fiber can be gleaned from oatmeal, brown rice, whole wheat bread, and whole grain pasta.1 Instead of eating fried and fatty foods, which are hard to digest and can cause discomfort and diarrhea, patients should eat healthy fats like olive oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds.1

Nausea

Some patients do not feel like eating because of nausea. If this happens, there are medications to help.6 Some foods, like oatmeal, plain potatoes, toast, or dry cereal, are easier to eat when nauseated. Having small drinks between meals can also help.6

Diarrhea

Patients who have more than 4 loose bowel movements per day or who have stools that are more liquid than normal may be having trouble absorbing food.7 Diarrhea has many possible causes, and there are several medications that can give relief. Drinking plenty of fluids and eating 6 to 8 small meals throughout the day can help patients get proper nutrition. Foods like oatmeal, applesauce, and bananas may help combat diarrhea.7

Proper nutrition can make a big difference in how patients feel when they have pancreatic cancer. All patients can benefit from working with a registered dietitian to learn how eating right can increase strength and comfort while facing pancreatic cancer.

References

  1. Pearlpoint Nutrition Services. I have pancreatic cancer. What should I eat? https://pearlpoint.org/i-have-pancreatic-cancer-what-should-i-eat. 2018. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  2. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network. Pancreatic enzymes. www.pancan.org/facing-pancreatic-cancer/living-with-pancreatic-cancer/diet-and-nutrition/pancreatic-enzymes. 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  3. Mitchell T, Clarke L, Goldberg A, Bishop KS. Pancreatic cancer cachexia: the role of nutritional interventions. Healthcare (Basel). 2019;7(3). pii:E89. doi: 10.3390/healthcare7030089.
  4. Sreedharan L, Kumar B, Jewell A, et al. Bridging clinic: the initial medical management of patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2019;10(3):261-268. doi: 10.1136/flgastro-2018-101002.
  5. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network. Nutrition following pancreatic surgery. www.pancan.org/facing-pancreatic-cancer/living-with-pancreatic-cancer/diet-and-nutrition/after-a-whipple-procedure. 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  6. Pearlpoint Nutrition Services. Nutrition guidelines following a Whipple procedure. https://pearlpoint.org/nutrition-guidelines-following-a-whipple-procedure. 2018. Accessed November 15, 2019.
  7. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network. Diarrhea. www.pancan.org/facing-pancreatic-cancer/living-with-pancreatic-cancer/diet-and-nutrition/diarrhea. 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019.
Recommended For You
Pancreatic Cancer
Understanding Pancreatic Cancer
A complex disease, pancreatic cancer has causes that are difficult to identify, and it often goes without symptoms and undiagnosed until the cancer is locally advanced or metastatic.
Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Explained
Depending on the cancer type and stage, along with individual patient factors, pancreatic cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, supportive care, or a combination of these treatments.
Pancreatic Cancer
Maintenance Therapy and Quality of Life
Helping patients preserve their quality of life by avoiding major side effects, maintenance therapy is a relatively new but promising form of treatment for pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic Cancer
Why Is Pancreatic Cancer So Deadly? Looking for New Answers
By Richard C. Frank, MD
Pancreatic cancer may become the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States by 2020. Because there are no clear warning signs for this cancer, it is often diagnosed late, when cure is no longer possible. Dr. Frank discusses the challenges of pancreatic cancer and describes new treatments that have shown promise.
Last modified: November 27, 2019

Subscribe to CONQUER: the patient voice magazine

Receive timely cancer news & updates, patient stories, and more.

Country